ARAB ADVISORS GROUP

Arab Advisors Group is a specialized research, analysis and consulting company focused on the communications, media and technology markets throughout the Arab World (MENA) region. Arab Advisors Group scope of services include providing primary research based analysis, market sizing forecasting, the competitive landscape, the regulatory landscape, market research, technology developments, market opportunity and risk assessments.

 
Media Strategic Research Service


1. Credibility of Satellite News Channels in Greater
Cairo

An analytical survey by Arab Advisors Group explores the perceived trustworthiness in Greater Cairo of nine satellite news channels, and cross-references the results with the gender and education of respondents.

 

This analysis is based on data from a major comprehensive survey conducted by Arab Advisors Group between November 2004 and January 2005. The survey probes the media usage patterns and habits of the population of Greater Cairo and indicates that approximately 66% of satellite TV viewers watch news programs (topped only by religious programs at 78%). Exploring the credibility of nine of the major Arabic and non-Arabic satellite news channels: Al Arabiya, Al Jazeera, Al Hurra, Al Ekhbariya, Al Mustakila, Nile News, NBN, CNN, and BBC World, the survey presents its results with reference to relevant demographic characteristics including the gender and education of respondents.

 

The survey is based on face-to-face interviews with 562 people from separate households selected at random from different areas within the Arab world's largest city, in a manner proportionate to the population sizes of the areas. The neighbourhoods covered comprise 3 high-income areas: Masr El Gideedah, El Mohandiseen, and El Maadi; 3 upper middle-income areas: Madinat Nasr, El Muqtam, and 6th of October City; 5 middle-income areas: Faisal, El Haram, Hilwan, El Qoba, and Wadi El Houf; and 6 low-income areas: Bab Al Sharyia, El Marg, Boula Abu Ellaa, Shoubra, Embaba, and Ain Shams. All respondents were above 15 years of age.

 

The scientific survey has a confidence level of 99% with a less than 5.5% margin of error. The complete results, including detailed statistical analysis and relevant cross tabulations, are available in the Arab Advisors Group report Cairo Households Media Survey 2005”. The report covers the major Arabic and Non-Arabic satellite TV channels viewed by the Egyptian audience, as well as terrestrial TV, radio, TV interactivity, movie viewing, and newspapers.

 

The survey reveals that Al Jazeera is the most watched news channel (either Arabic or non-Arabic) in Cairo by far; of the 259 respondents who had a satellite dish antenna at the time of the survey, a full 229 (i.e. 88%) reported watching Al Jazeera. Al Arabiya ranks second, with a viewership of 35%, and Nile News ranks a distant third with a viewership of 9% according to the survey. Approximately 7% of the respondents with a dish reported watching CNN, while 5% reported watching Al Hurra and 3% reported watching BBC World.

 

Launched by the MBC network in 2003, Al Arabiya news channel features a range of programs including up-to-date coverage of political and social issues targeting Arab audiences. Of the 224 respondents who expressed an opinion on the subject of the Arabic-language channel’s trustworthiness, over 75% found it to be credible (either very trustworthy or trustworthy), with almost one-third of the total labelling it very trustworthy and 43% labelling it trustworthy. Approximately 22% of the respondents classed Al Arabiya as somewhat trustworthy, while less than 3% considered it untrustworthy.

 

Exhibit 1: Al Arabiya Trustworthiness amongst Respondents who had an Opinion

Al Arabiya Trustworthiness

# of Respondents

%

Very Trustworthy

73

32.6%

Trustworthy

96

42.9%

Somewhat Trustworthy

49

21.9%

Not Trustworthy

6

2.7%

Total

224

100%

 

When divided by gender, the responses indicate similar results to the above, with a greater percentage of females compared to males regarding the channel as very trustworthy.

 

Exhibit 2: Al Arabiya Trustworthiness vs. Gender

 

Male

Female

Very Trustworthy

28

45

%

25.7%

39.1%

Trustworthy

49

47

%

45.0%

40.9%

Somewhat Trustworthy

28

21

%

25.7%

18.3%

Not Trustworthy

4

2

%

3.7%

1.7%

Total

109

115

 

Divided by level of education, the results are also consistent with the aggregate ones. It is worth noting that respondents at higher levels of education were more reluctant to label Al Arabiya as very trustworthy; more opted to label it trustworthy. None of the respondents were below the high school level.

 


Exhibit 3: Education vs. Al Arabiya Trustworthiness

 

Very Trustworthy

Trustworthy

Somewhat Trustworthy

Not Trustworthy

Total

High School

8

8

7

0

23

%

34.8%

34.8%

30.4%

0.0%

100.0%

University or Diploma

59

79

37

6

181

%

32.6%

43.6%

20.4%

3.3%

100.0%

Post Graduate (Masters or PhDs)

5

8

4

0

17

%

29.4%

47.1%

23.5%

0.0%

100.0%

Not Answered

1

1

1

0

3

 

 

Al Jazeera is by far the most watched news channel amongst the Egyptian audience. Almost nine years after its inception, the channel still maintains its reputation as an Arabic station that is free of censorship and government control, featuring liberated political debates and live interaction with its audiences.

 

Of the 244 respondents who expressed an opinion on Al Jazeera’s trustworthiness, over 85% perceived the channel as credible, with the majority of the total respondents characterizing it as very trustworthy. A mere 3% deemed the channel untrustworthy. Compared to Al Arabiya (and all the other satellite news channels explored in this report), Al Jazeera enjoys a higher level of credibility in Cairo. This indicates a positive correlation between the size of a channel’s viewers base and its trustworthiness.

 

Exhibit 4: Al Jazeera Trustworthiness amongst Respondents who had an Opinion

Al Jazeera Trustworthiness

# of Respondents

%

Very Trustworthy

142

58.2%

Trustworthy

67

27.5%

Somewhat Trustworthy

28

11.5%

Not Trustworthy

7

2.9%

Total

244

100%

 

Variations in opinion by gender were minimal.

 

Exhibit 5: Al Jazeera Trustworthiness vs. Gender

 

Male

Female

Very Trustworthy

66

76

%

55.5%

60.8%

Trustworthy

34

33

%

28.6%

26.4%

Somewhat Trustworthy

15

13

%

12.6%

10.4%

Not Trustworthy

4

3

%

3.4%

2.4%

Total

119

125

 

As in the case of Al Arabiya, the higher the level of education of the respondents, the lower the percentage that rated Al Jazeera as very trustworthy. In this case, however, more postgraduate-level respondents rated the channel as somewhat trustworthy as opposed to trustworthy.

 

Exhibit 6: Education vs. Al Jazeera Trustworthiness

 

Very Trustworthy

Trustworthy

Somewhat Trustworthy

Not Trustworthy

Total

High School

19

6

0

1

26

%

73.1%

23.1%

0.0%

3.8%

100.0%

University or Diploma

110

57

22

6

195

%

56.4%

29.2%

11.3%

3.1%

100.0%

Post Graduate (Masters or PhDs)

11

3

6

0

20

%

55.0%

15.0%

30.0%

0.0%

100.0%

Not Answered

2

1

0

0

3

 

 

United States-backed Al Hurra began broadcasting in February 2004 with the aim of providing an alternative to the two major pan-Arab news stations Al Arabia and Al Jazeera. However, of the 171 respondents who expressed an opinion on the subject of the new Arabic channel’s trustworthiness, only 15 (i.e. less than 9%) considered the channel very trustworthy, and 46 (i.e. 27%) considered it trustworthy.

 

Exhibit 7: Al Hurra Trustworthiness amongst Respondents who had an Opinion

Al Hurra Trustworthiness

# of Respondents

%

Very Trustworthy

15

8.8%

Trustworthy

46

26.9%

Somewhat Trustworthy

60

35.1%

Not Trustworthy

50

29.2%

Total

171

100%

 

More females than males regarded Al Hurra as credible. Again, respondents at lower levels of education were less reluctant to class the news channel as very trustworthy. High school-level respondents found Al Hurra least untrustworthy.

 

Exhibit 8: Al Hurra Trustworthiness vs. Gender

 

Male

Female

Very Trustworthy

5

10

%

5.8%

11.8%

Trustworthy

17

29

%

19.8%

34.1%

Somewhat Trustworthy

37

23

%

43.0%

27.1%

Not Trustworthy

27

23

%

31.4%

27.1%

Total

86

85

Exhibit 9: Education vs. Al Hurra Trustworthiness

 

Very Trustworthy

Trustworthy

Somewhat Trustworthy

Not Trustworthy

Total

High School

4

6

6

3

19

%

21.1%

31.6%

31.6%

15.8%

100.0%

University or Diploma

10

35

48

42

135

%

7.4%

25.9%

35.6%

31.1%

100.0%

Post Graduate (Masters or PhDs)

1

4

6

4

15

%

6.7%

26.7%

40.0%

26.7%

100.0%

Not Answered

0

1

0

1

2

 

 

Of the 152 respondents with an opinion regarding the trustworthiness of Al Ekhbariya news channel - the new addition to Saudi TV - almost half rated the Arabic channel as credible, with 10% regarding it as very trustworthy. Variations in response by gender are evident in the somewhat trustworthy and not trustworthy categories. It is also interesting to note that one-third of postgraduate-level respondents perceived the channel as very trustworthy.

 

Exhibit 10: Al Ekhbariya Trustworthiness amongst Respondents who had an Opinion

Al Ekhbariya Trustworthiness

# of Respondents

%

Very Trustworthy

15

9.9%

Trustworthy

56

36.8%

Somewhat Trustworthy

62

40.8%

Not Trustworthy

19

12.5%

Total

152

100%

 

Exhibit 11: Al Ekhbariya Trustworthiness vs. Gender

 

Male

Female

Very Trustworthy

8

7

%

9.5%

10.3%

Trustworthy

30

26

%

35.7%

38.2%

Somewhat Trustworthy

38

24

%

45.2%

35.3%

Not Trustworthy

8

11

%

9.5%

16.2%

Total

84

68

 


Exhibit 12: Education vs. Al Ekhbariya Trustworthiness

 

Very Trustworthy

Trustworthy

Somewhat Trustworthy

Not Trustworthy

Total

High School

3

8

8

1

20

%

15.0%

40.0%

40.0%

5.0%

100.0%

University or Diploma

7

45

49

16

117

%

6.0%

38.5%

41.9%

13.7%

100.0%

Post Graduate (Masters or PhDs)

4

3

4

1

12

%

33.3%

25.0%

33.3%

8.3%

100.0%

Not Answered

1

0

1

1

3

 

 

The results for London-based Arabic-language Al Mustakila are more or less consistent across genders and levels of education, with more high school-level respondents stating that the channel is very trustworthy.

 

Exhibit 13: Al Mustakila Trustworthiness amongst Respondents who had an Opinion

Al Mustakila Trustworthiness

# of Respondents

%

Very Trustworthy

8

7.0%

Trustworthy

28

24.6%

Somewhat Trustworthy

55

48.2%

Not Trustworthy

23

20.2%

Total

114

100%

 

Exhibit 14: Al Mustakila Trustworthiness vs. Gender

 

Male

Female

Very Trustworthy

3

5

%

5.1%

9.1%

Trustworthy

16

12

%

27.1%

21.8%

Somewhat Trustworthy

27

28

%

45.8%

50.9%

Not Trustworthy

13

10

%

22.0%

18.2%

Total

59

55

 


Exhibit 15: Education vs. Al Mustakila Trustworthiness

 

Very Trustworthy

Trustworthy

Somewhat Trustworthy

Not Trustworthy

Total

High School

3

4

9

0

16

%

18.8%

25.0%

56.3%

0.0%

100.0%

University or Diploma

3

21

40

20

84

%

3.6%

25.0%

47.6%

23.8%

100.0%

Post Graduate (Masters or PhDs)

1

3

5

2

11

%

9.1%

27.3%

45.5%

18.2%

100.0%

Not Answered

1

0

1

1

3

 

 

Egyptian Radio and Television Union’s Nile News was rated as credible by over 60% of the 211 respondents who had an opinion on the subject. It is interesting to note that the largest percentage of postgraduate-level respondents classed the Arabic-language channel as very trustworthy.

 

Exhibit 16: Nile News Trustworthiness amongst Respondents who had an Opinion

Nile News Trustworthiness

# of Respondents

%

Very Trustworthy

47

22.3%

Trustworthy

87

41.2%

Somewhat Trustworthy

66

31.3%

Not Trustworthy

11

5.2%

Total With Sat TV

211

100.0%

 

Exhibit 17: Nile News Trustworthiness vs. Gender

 

Male

Female

Very Trustworthy

24

23

%

23.1%

21.5%

Trustworthy

40

47

%

38.5%

43.9%

Somewhat Trustworthy

34

32

%

32.7%

29.9%

Not Trustworthy

6

5

%

5.8%

4.7%

Total

104

107

 


Exhibit 18: Education vs. Nile News Trustworthiness

 

Very Trustworthy

Trustworthy

Somewhat Trustworthy

Not Trustworthy

Total

High School

9

8

9

0

26

%

34.6%

30.8%

34.6%

0.0%

100.0%

University or Diploma

31

72

53

10

166

%

18.7%

43.4%

31.9%

6.0%

100.0%

Post Graduate (Masters or PhDs)

7

6

4

0

17

%

41.2%

35.3%

23.5%

0.0%

100.0%

Not Answered

0

1

0

1

2

 

 

The privately owned Lebanese National Broadcasting Network (NBN), established in 1996, became a specialized news channel in 1999 and began broadcasting via satellite in 2000. Over half of the 129 respondents with an opinion on NBN’s trustworthiness regarded it as credible.

 

Exhibit 19: NBN Trustworthiness amongst Respondents who had an Opinion

NBN Trustworthiness

# of Respondents

%

Very Trustworthy

16

12.4%

Trustworthy

50

38.8%

Somewhat Trustworthy

50

38.8%

Not Trustworthy

13

10.1%

Total

129

100%

 

A larger percentage of males considered the channel trustworthy, whereas more of the females considered it somewhat trustworthy.

 

Exhibit 20: NBN Trustworthiness vs. Gender

 

Male

Female

Very Trustworthy

9

7

%

13.0%

11.7%

Trustworthy

29

21

%

42.0%

35.0%

Somewhat Trustworthy

24

26

%

34.8%

43.3%

Not Trustworthy

7

6

%

10.1%

10.0%

Total

69

60

 

A greater proportion of postgraduate-level respondents deemed the channel very trustworthy.

 


Exhibit 21: Education vs. NBN Trustworthiness

 

Very Trustworthy

Trustworthy

Somewhat Trustworthy

Not Trustworthy

Total

High School

3

7

8

0

18

%

16.7%

38.9%

44.4%

0.0%

100.0%

University or Diploma

10

36

36

13

95

%

10.5%

37.9%

37.9%

13.7%

100.0%

Post Graduate (Masters or PhDs)

3

6

5

0

14

%

21.4%

42.9%

35.7%

0.0%

100.0%

Not Answered

0

1

1

0

2

 

 

CNN’s long standing in broadcasting news to the region dates back to the 1990 Gulf War. At the time, the channel gained popularity amongst audiences in the Arab world due to its extensive coverage of the events.

 

Of the 165 respondents who expressed an opinion on CNN’s trustworthiness, almost 67% stated that it is credible, with 37% stating that it is very trustworthy. Approximately 7% deemed the U.S.-based English-language channel untrustworthy. Substantial variations exist between the responses of males and females in the very trustworthy and trustworthy categories. The majority of high school-level respondents stated that CNN is very trustworthy.

 

Exhibit 22: CNN Trustworthiness amongst Respondents who had an Opinion

CNN Trustworthiness

# of Respondents

%

Very Trustworthy

61

37.0%

Trustworthy

49

29.7%

Somewhat Trustworthy

44

26.7%

Not Trustworthy

11

6.7%

Total With Sat TV

165

100%

 

Exhibit 23: CNN Trustworthiness vs. Gender

 

Male

Female

Very Trustworthy

24

37

%

27.0%

48.7%

Trustworthy

33

16

%

37.1%

21.1%

Somewhat Trustworthy

26

18

%

29.2%

23.7%

Not Trustworthy

6

5

%

6.7%

6.6%

Total

89

76

 


Exhibit 24: Education vs. CNN Trustworthiness

 

Very Trustworthy

Trustworthy

Somewhat Trustworthy

Not Trustworthy

Total

High School

10

5

3

1

19

%

52.6%

26.3%

15.8%

5.3%

100.0%

University or Diploma

45

36

36

10

127

%

35.4%

28.3%

28.3%

7.9%

100.0%

Post Graduate (Masters or PhDs)

6

6

5

0

17

%

35.3%

35.3%

29.4%

0.0%

100.0%

Not Answered

0

2

0

0

2

 

 

Originally set up in 1991, the British Broadcasting Corporation’s English-language 24-hour news channel BBC World has a similar credibility rating in Cairo to that of CNN.

 

Exhibit 25: BBC World Trustworthiness amongst Respondents who had an Opinion

BBC World Trustworthiness

# of Respondents

%

Very Trustworthy

59

36.2%

Trustworthy

55

33.7%

Somewhat Trustworthy

43

26.4%

Not Trustworthy

6

3.7%

Total

163

100%

 

As in the case of CNN, more females than males regarded BBC World as very trustworthy, although the variation in opinion between genders in this case is not as great. In addition, BBC World was also considered most trustworthy amongst respondents at the high school-level, with the percentage of respondents rating the channel as trustworthy increasing with the increase in level of education.

 

Exhibit 26: BBC World Trustworthiness vs. Gender

 

Male

Female

Very Trustworthy

29

30

%

33.0%

40.0%

Trustworthy

32

23

%

36.4%

30.7%

Somewhat Trustworthy

25

18

%

28.4%

24.0%

Not Trustworthy

2

4

%

2.3%

5.3%

Total

88

75

 


Exhibit 27: Education vs. BBC World Trustworthiness

 

Very Trustworthy

Trustworthy

Somewhat Trustworthy

Not Trustworthy

Total

High School

10

5

4

0

19

%

52.6%

26.3%

21.1%

0.0%

100.0%

University or Diploma

42

42

36

6

126

%

33.3%

33.3%

28.6%

4.8%

100.0%

Post Graduate (Masters or PhDs)

7

6

3

0

16

%

43.8%

37.5%

18.8%

0.0%

100.0%

Not Answered

0

2

0

0

2

 

 

 

As well as the extent to which satellite TV channels are watched amongst Egyptians, Arab Advisors Group’s Cairo Households Media Survey 2005” also probes the popularity of these channels. When asked to list their favourite Arabic or non-Arabic channels, respondents ranked only Al Jazeera amongst the top ten, with Al Arabiya ranking seventeenth and the other satellite news channels explored in this report lagging far behind.

 

The survey also indicates that Arabic remains the preferred language in which to watch TV in Greater Cairo, even amongst respondents at higher levels of education. This may help to explain some of Al Jazeera and Al Arabiya’s success compared to the major English-language players CNN and BBC World.

 

 

 

 

Although the information in this report has been obtained from sources that Arab Advisors Group believes to be reliable, we do not guarantee its accuracy, and such information may be incomplete or condensed. All opinions and estimates included in this report constitute our judgment as of this date and are subject to change without notice. This report is for information purposes only and is not intended as an offer or solicitation with respect to the purchase or sale of any security. No part of this document may be reproduced without the written permission of Arab Advisors Group.

 

 

 

2. Credibility of Satellite News Channels in Jordan

An analytical survey by Arab Advisors Group explores the perceived trustworthiness amongst Jordanians of nine satellite news channels, and cross-references the results with the gender and education of respondents.

 

In a turbulent region, news is one of the main reasons people watch TV. The 1990 Gulf War, during which the Cable News Network (CNN) drew audiences from all around the Arab world, underscored the importance of satellite news channels to the region, and by 1996 the first Arab all-news channel, Al Jazeera, was launched from Qatar. The newly established channel gained immediate popularity amongst Arabs due to its novel approach in pan-region satellite news broadcasting.

 

Today, Arab satellite TV viewers can choose from a range of thematic Arabic and non-Arabic news channels available to them. A recent survey of the media usage and viewing patterns in Jordan indicates that the largest percentage of Jordanians (83%) watch news programs (followed by family entertainment programs at 78%). The survey, conducted by Arab Advisors Group, explores the credibility of nine of the major Arabic and non-Arabic satellite news channels: Al Arabiya, Al Jazeera, Al Hurra, Al Ekhbariya, Al Mustakila, ANN, NBN, CNN, and BBC World, and presents the results with reference to relevant demographic characteristics including the gender and education of respondents.

 

Carried out between November 2004 and January 2005, the survey is based on face-to-face interviews with 606 people from separate households selected at random from different areas within Jordan’s three major cities (Amman, Irbid, and Zarqa), in a manner proportionate to the population sizes of the areas. All respondents were above 15 years of age.

 

The scientific survey has a confidence level of 99% with a less than 5.25% margin of error. The complete results, including detailed statistical analysis and relevant cross tabulations, are available in the Arab Advisors Group report Jordan Households Media Survey 2005”. The report covers the major Arabic and Non-Arabic satellite TV channels viewed by the Jordanian audience, as well as terrestrial TV, radio, TV interactivity, movie viewing, and newspapers.

 

According to the findings of the survey, Al Arabiya is the second most watched news channel (either Arabic or non-Arabic) in Jordan after Al Jazeera. Of the 549 respondents who had a satellite dish at the time of the survey, 298 (i.e. 54%) acknowledged watching Al Arabiya, while 396 (i.e. 72%) acknowledged watching Al Jazeera. Al Hurra, and the remainder of the news channels explored in this report, have much smaller viewer bases; less than 1.5% of respondents with a satellite dish acknowledged watching Al Hurra, and even smaller numbers acknowledged watching the other channels. CNN, for example, has a viewer ship of 0.7%, whereas BBC World has a viewer ship 0.4% according to the survey.

 

Launched by the MBC network in 2003, Al Arabiya news channel features a range of programs targeting Arab audiences, including up-to-date coverage of political and social issues. Of the 456 respondents who expressed an opinion on the subject of Al Arabiya’s trustworthiness, almost two-thirds rated the Arabic language channel as trustworthy, one-third rated it as somewhat trustworthy, and less than 5% perceived it as untrustworthy. The remainder of the 606 people surveyed either did not have a satellite dish, did not answer the question, or answered that they did not have an opinion on the subject.

 

Exhibit 1: Al Arabiya Trustworthiness amongst Respondents who had an Opinion

Al Arabiya Trustworthiness

# of respondents

%

Trustworthy

279

61.2%

Somewhat Trustworthy

155

34.0%

Not Trustworthy

22

4.8%

Total

456

100%

 

When divided by gender, the responses indicate similar results to the above, with little variation in opinion between males and females.

 

Exhibit 2: Al Arabiya Trustworthiness vs. Gender

 

Male

Female

Trustworthy

160

119

%

64.3%

57.5%

Somewhat Trustworthy

75

80

%

30.1%

38.6%

Not Trustworthy

14

8

%

5.6%

3.9%

Total

249

207

 

Divided by level of education, the results are also consistent with the aggregate ones, with the majority of respondents at each level rating Al Arabiya as trustworthy.

 


Exhibit 3: Education vs. Al Arabiya Trustworthiness

 

Trustworthy

Somewhat Trustworthy

Not Trustworthy

Total

Below High School

57

30

4

91

%

62.6%

33.0%

4.4%

100.0%

High School

117

56

6

179

%

65.4%

31.3%

3.4%

100.0%

University or Diploma

94

64

11

169

%

55.6%

37.9%

6.5%

100.0%

Post Graduate (Masters or PhDs)

8

4

0

12

%

66.7%

33.3%

0.0%

100.0%

Not Answered

3

1

1

5

 

 

Al Jazeera remains the most watched news channel in Jordan. Since its inception in 1996, the channel has maintained its reputation as an Arabic station that is free of censorship and government control, featuring liberated political debates and live interaction with its audiences.

 

Of the 505 respondents who expressed an opinion on Al Jazeera’s trustworthiness, approximately two-thirds regarded the channel as trustworthy, while less than 4% deemed it untrustworthy. From the results, it would appear that both Al Jazeera and Al Arabiya enjoy a similar level of credibility in Jordan.

 

Exhibit 4: Al Jazeera Trustworthiness amongst Respondents who had an Opinion

Al Jazeera Trustworthiness

# of respondents

%

Trustworthy

322

63.8%

Somewhat Trustworthy

165

32.7%

Not Trustworthy

18

3.6%

Total

505

100%

 

Variations in response by gender for Al Jazeera are greater than those for Al Arabiya; however, the majority of respondents from each still stated that the channel is trustworthy. The results for different levels of education are similar to the top-line results above.

 

Exhibit 5: Al Jazeera Trustworthiness vs. Gender

 

Male

Female

Trustworthy

197

125

%

73.0%

53.2%

Somewhat Trustworthy

61

104

%

22.6%

44.3%

Not Trustworthy

12

6

%

4.4%

2.6%

Total

270

235

 

Exhibit 6: Education vs. Al Jazeera Trustworthiness


 

Trustworthy

Somewhat Trustworthy

Not Trustworthy

Total

Below High School

65

36

3

104

%

62.5%

34.6%

2.9%

100.0%

High School

125

59

7

191

%

65.4%

30.9%

3.7%

100.0%

University or Diploma

117

63

8

188

%

62.2%

33.5%

4.3%

100.0%

Post Graduate (Masters or PhDs)

9

6

0

15

%

60.0%

40.0%

0.0%

100.0%

Not Answered

6

1

0

7

 

 

Funded by the United States, Arabic-language Al Hurra began broadcasting in February 2004 with the aim of providing an alternative to the two major pan-Arab news stations Al Arabia and Al Jazeera. However, of the 245 respondents who expressed an opinion on the subject of Al Hurra’s trustworthiness, only 49 (i.e. 20%) rated the channel as trustworthy.

 

Exhibit 7: Al Hurra Trustworthiness amongst Respondents who had an Opinion

Al Hurra Trustworthiness

# of respondents

%

Trustworthy

49

20.0%

Somewhat Trustworthy

104

42.4%

Not Trustworthy

92

37.6%

Total

245

100%

 

A greater percentage of females compared to males doubted al Hurra’s trustworthiness.

 

Exhibit 8: Al Hurra Trustworthiness vs. Gender

 

Male

Female

Trustworthy

40

9

%

23.8%

11.7%

Somewhat Trustworthy

78

26

%

46.4%

33.8%

Not Trustworthy

50

42

%

29.8%

54.5%

Total

168

77

 

Compared to other levels, university or diploma-level respondents found Al Hurra least trustworthy.

 


Exhibit 9: Education vs. Al Hurra Trustworthiness

 

Trustworthy

Somewhat Trustworthy

Not Trustworthy

Total

Below High School

13

18

13

44

%

29.5%

40.9%

29.5%

100.0%

High School

21

44

31

96

%

21.9%

45.8%

32.3%

100.0%

University or Diploma

11

38

43

92

%

12.0%

41.3%

46.7%

100.0%

Post Graduate (Masters or PhDs)

3

2

4

9

%

33.3%

22.2%

44.4%

100.0%

Not Answered

1

2

1

4

 

 

The majority of the 178 respondents who expressed an opinion on the trustworthiness of the new addition to Saudi TV - news channel Al Ekhbariya - found it to be somewhat trustworthy, while only 15% considered it trustworthy.

 

Exhibit 10: Al Ekhbariya Trustworthiness amongst Respondents who had an Opinion

Al Ekhbariya Trustworthiness

# of respondents

%

Trustworthy

27

15.2%

Somewhat Trustworthy

111

62.4%

Not Trustworthy

40

22.5%

Total

178

100%

 

It can be noted that a larger number of males than females responded to the question relating to Al Ekhbariya’s trustworthiness.

 

Exhibit 11: Al Ekhbariya Trustworthiness vs. Gender

 

Male

Female

Trustworthy

24

3

%

16.2%

10.0%

Somewhat Trustworthy

92

19

%

62.2%

63.3%

Not Trustworthy

32

8

%

21.6%

26.7%

Total

148

30

 

University or diploma and postgraduate-level respondents found Al Ekhbariya least trustworthy.

 


Exhibit 12: Education vs. Al Ekhbariya Trustworthiness

 

Trustworthy

Somewhat Trustworthy

Not Trustworthy

Total

Below High School

6

20

6

32

%

18.8%

62.5%

18.8%

100.0%

High School

16

45

19

80

%

20.0%

56.3%

23.8%

100.0%

University or Diploma

4

41

12

57

%

7.0%

71.9%

21.1%

100.0%

Post Graduate (Masters or PhDs)

0

3

2

5

%

0.0%

60.0%

40.0%

100.0%

Not Answered

1

2

1

4

 

 

The London-based Arabic-language news station Al Mustakila has a similar credibility rating to that of Al Ekhbariya, with a larger proportion of the 153 respondents who expressed an opinion in this case regarding the channel as untrustworthy.

                                                                                       

Exhibit 13: Al Mustakila Trustworthiness amongst Respondents who had an Opinion

 

Al Mustakila Trustworthiness

# of respondents

%

Trustworthy

18

11.8%

Somewhat Trustworthy

78

51.0%

Not Trustworthy

57

37.3%

Total

153

100%

 

It is noteworthy that a larger percentage of males rated Al Mustakila as trustworthy, while more of the female respondents considered it somewhat trustworthy.

 

Exhibit 14: Al Mustakila Trustworthiness vs. Gender

 

Male

Female

Trustworthy

17

1

%

12.9%

4.8%

Somewhat Trustworthy

65

13

%

49.2%

61.9%

Not Trustworthy

50

7

%

37.9%

33.3%

Total

132

21

 


Exhibit 15: Education vs. Al Mustakila Trustworthiness

 

Trustworthy

Somewhat Trustworthy

Not Trustworthy

Total

Below High School

4

16

8

28

%

14.3%

57.1%

28.6%

100.0%

High School

9

35

28

72

%

12.5%

48.6%

38.9%

100.0%

University or Diploma

4

23

17

44

%

9.1%

52.3%

38.6%

100.0%

Post Graduate (Masters or PhDs)

0

4

3

7

%

0.0%

57.1%

42.9%

100.0%

Not Answered

1

0

1

2

 

 

The Arab News Network (ANN) broadcasts in Arabic from studios in London. Although the channel was launched in 1997, almost half of the 143 respondents who had an opinion rated it as untrustworthy.

 

Exhibit 16: ANN Trustworthiness amongst Respondents who had an Opinion

ANN Trustworthiness

# of respondents

%

Trustworthy

24

16.8%

Somewhat Trustworthy

49

34.3%

Not Trustworthy

70

49.0%

Total

143

100%

 

The disparity in the responses of males versus females is clear; many more of the females perceived ANN as trustworthy, while the majority of males regarded it as untrustworthy.

 

Exhibit 17: ANN Trustworthiness vs. Gender

 

Male

Female

Trustworthy

12

12

%

11.0%

35.3%

Somewhat Trustworthy

35

14

%

32.1%

41.2%

Not Trustworthy

62

8

%

56.9%

23.5%

Total

109

34

 

It is interesting to note that the higher the level of education of the respondents, the more trustworthy they considered ANN.

 


Exhibit 18: Education vs. ANN Trustworthiness

 

Trustworthy

Somewhat Trustworthy

Not Trustworthy

Total

Below High School

3

5

18

26

%

11.5%

19.2%

69.2%

100.0%

High School

9

20

33

62

%

14.5%

32.3%

53.2%

100.0%

University or Diploma

8

23

18

49

%

16.3%

46.9%

36.7%

100.0%

Post Graduate (Masters or PhDs)

2

1

1

4

%

50.0%

25.0%

25.0%

100.0%

Not Answered

2

0

0

2

 

 

Established in 1996, the privately owned National Broadcasting Network (NBN) became a specialized news channel in 1999, and began broadcasting via satellite in 2000. Of the 149 respondents who had an opinion regarding the Lebanese channel’s trustworthiness, over half labeled it untrustworthy. 

 

Exhibit 19: NBN Trustworthiness amongst Respondents who had an Opinion

NBN Trustworthiness

# of respondents

%

Trustworthy

13

8.7%

Somewhat Trustworthy

60

40.3%

Not Trustworthy

76

51.0%

Total

149

100%

 

A larger percentage of males compared to females deemed the channel untrustworthy.

 

Exhibit 20: NBN Trustworthiness vs. Gender

 

Male

Female

Trustworthy

7

6

%

6.5%

14.6%

Somewhat Trustworthy

35

25

%

32.4%

61.0%

Not Trustworthy

66

10

%

61.1%

24.4%

Total

108

41

 


Exhibit 21: Education vs. NBN Trustworthiness

 

Trustworthy

Somewhat Trustworthy

Not Trustworthy

Total

Below High School

2

7

18

27

%

7.4%

25.9%

66.7%

100.0%

High School

3

28

34

65

%

4.6%

43.1%

52.3%

100.0%

University or Diploma

6

22

23

51

%

11.8%

43.1%

45.1%

100.0%

Post Graduate (Masters or PhDs)

1

3

1

5

%

20.0%

60.0%

20.0%

100.0%

Not Answered

1

0

0

1

 

 

Despite its long standing in broadcasting news to the region, over 40% of the total 188 respondents with an opinion characterized U.S.-based English-language CNN as untrustworthy. It is interesting to note, however, that the majority of postgraduate-level respondents labeled CNN as trustworthy. In addition, substantial variations exist between the responses of males and females.

 

Exhibit 22: CNN Trustworthiness amongst Respondents who had an Opinion

CNN Trustworthiness

# of respondents

%

Trustworthy

44

23.4%

Somewhat Trustworthy

67

35.6%

Not Trustworthy

77

41.0%

Total

188

100%

 

Exhibit 23: CNN Trustworthiness vs. Gender

 

Male

Female

Trustworthy

24

20

%

18.6%

33.9%

Somewhat Trustworthy

34

33

%

26.4%

55.9%

Not Trustworthy

71

6

%

55.0%

10.2%

Total

129

59

 


Exhibit 24: Education vs. CNN Trustworthiness

 

Trustworthy

Somewhat Trustworthy

Not Trustworthy

Total

Below High School

3

9

19

31

%

9.7%

29.0%

61.3%

100.0%

High School

12

31

34

77

%

15.6%

40.3%

44.2%

100.0%

University or Diploma

22

25

22

69

%

31.9%

36.2%

31.9%

100.0%

Post Graduate (Masters or PhDs)

6

2

1

9

%

66.7%

22.2%

11.1%

100.0%

Not Answered

1

0

1

2

 

 

BBC World - the British Broadcasting Corporation’s international 24-hour news channel, originally set up in 1991 – appears to be in a similar situation to that of CNN in Jordan. Not only does the English-language channel have a small viewer ship (similar to that of CNN), but almost half of the 189 respondents who expressed an opinion on the channel’s trustworthiness rated it as untrustworthy.

 

Exhibit 25: BBC World Trustworthiness amongst Respondents who had an Opinion

BBC World Trustworthiness

# of respondents

%

Trustworthy

51

27.0%

Somewhat Trustworthy

53

28.0%

Not Trustworthy

85

45.0%

Total

189

100%

 

As in the case of CNN, more females than males regarded BBC World as trustworthy.

 

Exhibit 26: BBC World Trustworthiness vs. Gender

 

Male

Female

Trustworthy</